Backdoors to Satisfaction
Appeared in the book: The Multivariate Complexity Revolution and Beyond: Essays Dedicated to Michael R. Fellows on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Edited by Bodlaender, H.L., Downey, R., Fomin, F.V., Marx, D. LNCS vol. 370, pp. 287-317, Springer Verlag, 2012.
Abstract:A backdoor set is a set of variables of a propositional formula such that fixing the truth values of the variables in the backdoor set moves the formula into some polynomial-time decidable class. If we know a small backdoor set we can reduce the question of whether the given formula is satisfiable to the same question for one or several easy formulas that belong to the tractable class under consideration. In this survey we review parameterized complexity results for problems that arise in the context of backdoor sets, such as the problem of finding a backdoor set of size at most k, parameterized by k. We also discuss recent results on backdoor sets for problems that are beyond NP.
Preprint available from Arxiv.org: 1110.6387.