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Project: A Declarative Planning System Based on Logic Programming

supported by the Austrian Science Funds (FWF) under project number P14781)


Contents


Project team

Students:

Motivation and Background

Planning and reasoning about actions and change are relevant fields of AI reseach since its beginnings. Declarative approaches to planning have been recently proposed in the literature. In these approaches, the user specifies the planning problem in a logic-based declarative formalism. Finding the desired plans is then reduced to elementary problems in computational logic such as satisfiability checking, which are solved by an efficient computational engine. The main goal of this project is to advance this line of research, and to build a declarative planning system which overcomes some shortcomings of current approaches to declarative planning. In particular, the computation of plans which are optimal according to criteria such as costs of actions or desirability of states should be supported, and computing such plans should be possible also in scenarios where the knowledge about the planning world is incomplete.

Goal of the project

The overall goal of this project is to build a declarative planning system which overcomes drawbacks and shortcomings of existing systems and can be profitably exploited for real life applications. We expect to develop a system which can be used for solving planning problems of reasonable size (non-toy examples, but not huge problem instances). The user should benefit from quick prototyping of applications. This main goal can be split into the following subgoals:

State of the Project and Outlook

In the course of the project we have developed the declarative logical planning language \K, turning our special attention to domain-independence, full declarativity, modularity, ease of maintenance, advanced capabilities such as dealing with incomplete knowledge or formalzation of action costs, and reducibility to Disjunctive Logic Programming (DLP). To this end, we have analyzed existing approaches of declarative action and planning languages and enriched them with new desirable features. The current version of our language allows to encode incomplete knowledge elegantly and in a straightforward way, enabling the user to express default assumptions, nondeterministic action effects and incomplete initial knowledge. We allow for parallel and sequential actions as well as optimistic and conformant (secure) planning. Furthermore, the language allows to assign possibly dynamic (i.e. time-dependent) costs to actions, formalizing optimizition with respect to this costs which can be done by our implementation:

Our research results have been incorporated in the prototype version of the DLVK system, a declarative planning system based on logic programming. The prototype has been implemented on top of the underlying DLV system, a powerful engine evaluating logic programs under the Answer Set Semantics. Details and various examples on the usability of our system to formalize and solve intricate planning tasks can be found on the system homepage.

Further goals to be adressed include optimizing the currrent transformation, to increase the system performance as well as further language extensions such as including resource handling.

Publications

[DEF+03]
Jürgen Dix, Thomas Eiter, Michael Fink, Axel Polleres, and Yingqian Zhang. Monitoring agents using planning. To appear in Proc. of the German Conference on Artificial Intelligence (KI2003), 2003.

[EFL+03a]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. A Logic Programming Approach to Knowledge-State Planning, II: the DLV K System. Artificial Intelligence, 144(1-2):157-211, March 2003.

[EFL+03b]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. A Logic Programming Approach to Knowledge-State Planning: Semantics and Complexity. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic, 2003. To appear.

[EFL+03c]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. Answer Set Planning under Action Costs. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 19:25-71, 2003.

[EFLP03]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, and Gerald Pfeifer. Computing Preferred Answer Sets by Meta-Interpretation in Answer Set Programming. Journal of the Theory and Practice of Logic Programming, 3:463-498, July/September 2003.

[EP03]
Thomas Eiter and Axel Polleres. Transforming coNP checks to answer set computation by meta-interpretation. In Proceedings of the 2003 Joint Conference on Declarative Programming APPIA-GULP-PRODE 2003, Reggio Calabria, Italy, September 2003.

[Pol03]
Axel Polleres. The declarative planning system DLVK: Progress and extensions. In Jeremy Frank and Susanne Biundo, editors, Printed Notes of the ICAPS-03 Doctoral Consortium, pages 94-98, June 2003.

[CFLP02]
Francesco Calimeri, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, and Gerald Pfeifer. Pruning Operators for Answer Set Programming Systems. In Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning (NMR'2002), pages 200-209, April 2002. (PostScript)

[EFL+02a]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. Answer Set Planning under Action Costs. In Sergio Flesca, Sergio Greco, Giovambattista Ianni, and Nicola Leone, editors, Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (JELIA), number 2424 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 186-197, September 2002.

[EFL+02b]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. Answer Set Planning under Action Costs. Technical Report INFSYS RR-1843-02-13, Institut für Informationssysteme, Technische Universität Wien, October 2002. Accepted for publication in Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research. (PostScript)

[EFL+02c]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. The DLV K Planning System: Progress Report. In Sergio Flesca, Sergio Greco, Giovambattista Ianni, and Nicola Leone, editors, Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (JELIA), number 2424 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 541-544, September 2002. (System Description).

[Fab02]
Wolfgang Faber. Enhancing Efficiency and Expressiveness in Answer Set Programming Systems. PhD thesis, Institut für Informationssysteme, Technische Universität Wien, 2002.

[LPF+02a]
Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, Wolfgang Faber, Francesco Calimeri, Tina Dell'Armi, Thomas Eiter, Georg Gottlob, Giovambattista Ianni, Giuseppe Ielpa, Christoph Koch, Simona Perri, and Axel Polleres. The DLV System. In Sergio Flesca, Sergio Greco, Giovambattista Ianni, and Nicola Leone, editors, Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (JELIA), number 2424 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 537-540, September 2002. (System Description).

[LPF+02b]
Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, Wolfgang Faber, Thomas Eiter, Georg Gottlob, Christoph Koch, Cristinel Mateis, Simona Perri, and Francesco Scarcello. The DLV System for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Technical Report cs.AI/0211004, arXiv.org, November 2002. Submitted to ACM TOCL. (PostScript)

[Pol02a]
Axel Polleres. Answer Set Planning with DLVK. The PLANET Newsletter, 5:36-37, 2002. (PDF)

[Pol02b]
Axel Polleres. Answer Set Planning with DLVK: Planning with Action Costs, September 2002. Poster presented at the PLANET'02 International Summer School on AI Planning 2002. (PDF)

[CFL+01]
Francesco Calimeri, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Simona Perri, and Gerald Pfeifer. DLV - Declarative Problem Solving using Answer Set Programming. In Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence AI*IA 2001, Bari, Italy, 2001.

[EFL+01a]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. A Logic Programming Approach to Knowledge-State Planning, II: the DLV K System. Technical Report INFSYS RR-1843-01-12, Institut für Informationssysteme, Technische Universität Wien, December 2001. To appear in Artificial Intelligence. (PostScript)

[EFL+01b]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. A Logic Programming Approach to Knowledge-State Planning: Semantics and Complexity. Technical Report INFSYS RR-1843-01-11, Institut für Informationssysteme, Technische Universität Wien, December 2001. To appear in ACM Transactions on Computational Logic. (PostScript)

[EFL+01c]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. System Description: The DLV K Planning System. In Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, and Miroslaw Truszczynski, editors, Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning --- 6th International Conference, LPNMR'01, Vienna, Austria, September 2001, Proceedings, number 2173 in Lecture Notes in AI (LNAI), pages 413-416. Springer Verlag, September 2001. (PostScript)

[EFL+01d]
Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, Gerald Pfeifer, and Axel Polleres. The DLV K Planning System. In Alessandro Cimatti, Héctor Geffner, Enrico Giunchiglia, and Jussi Rintanen, editors, IJCAI-01 Workshop on Planning under Uncertainty and Incomplete Information, pages 76-81, August 2001.

[FLP01a]
Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, and Gerald Pfeifer. A Comparison of Heuristics for Answer Set Programming. In Proceedings of the 5th Dutch-German Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning Techniques and their Applications (DGNMR 2001), pages 64-75, April 2001.

[FLP01b]
Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, and Gerald Pfeifer. Experimenting with Heuristics for Answer Set Programming. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) 2001, pages 635-640, Seattle, WA, USA, August 2001. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. (PostScript)

[FLP01c]
Wolfgang Faber, Nicola Leone, and Gerald Pfeifer. Optimizing the Computation of Heuristics for Answer Set Programming Systems. In Thomas Eiter, Wolfgang Faber, and Miroslaw Truszczynski, editors, Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning --- 6th International Conference, LPNMR'01, Vienna, Austria, September 2001, Proceedings, number 2173 in Lecture Notes in AI (LNAI), pages 288-301. Springer Verlag, September 2001.


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